On the face of it, Mexican is a national category, not a racial one or even an ethnic one. But in Texas it took on aspects of racial or ethnic logic. For starters, it became a heritable category. The children of Texas Mexicans were still Mexicans, even if they had no political connection to the Mexican government, and no family connection to Mexican territory.
Another lesson may be that first-class white citizenship could only buy you so much — alongside studies of whiteness in the politics of class, gender, etc.
While Tejanos were typically white in courtrooms and legislation, they often became nonwhite in the newspapers
If one wishes to do so, it is not at all difficult to prove that Anglo-Texans often entertained very low opinions of Texas Mexicans in the antebellum period, and that they often organized these derogatory opinions under an ugly set of ethnic stereotypes and racial comparisons. And yet as Anglo-Texans enjoyed steadily increasing dominance over lawmaking and politics, and immersed themselves in reconstructing the Texas polity in ever-more race-conscious terms … [legal culture and hard cases] … Indeed perhaps part of the lesson of this study is the loose joint between commonplace race culture and officially recognized racial discourse.
- De León, They Called Them Greasers.↩
Nearly all of the capitalized words in this paper are contested terms with shifting ranges of signification and fuzzy boundaries….
In its Constitution of 1861, Texas once again opened its court systems for worthy citizens and/or Texas revolutionary war veterans to petition for land, and, as in the Constitution of 1845, a two-year limitations period was imposed.
The 1861 term of court saw such a claim: the descendants of Damacio Jimenez, defender of the Alamo, came forward and petitioned in open court for a headright claim of land as promised by the Constitution of Texas.
- Raul Casso IV, “Damacio Jimenez: The Lost and Found Alamo Defender,” in Southwestern Historical Quarterly 96 (July 1992 – April 1993): 87-92.↩
- Texas Constitution of 1861, article XI, sec. 2, in Vernon’s Annotated Constitution, 594.↩
- Headright Book 2, pp. 370-373.↩
Ninth Congress laws : https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth91047/
Witness in Court: “Sec. 26. All negroes, mulattoes, Indians, and all other persons of mixed blood, descended from negro or Indian ancestors, to the third generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person, shall be incapable in law to be witnesses in any case whatsoever, except for and against each other.” [Dec. 22, 1836]
Slave Trade as Piracy: “Sec. 1. … That if any person or persons shall introduce any African negro or negroes, contrary to the true intent and meaning of the ninth section of the general provisions of the constitution, declaring the introduction of African negroes into this republic, to be piracy, except such as are from the United States of America, and had been held as slaves therein, be considered guilty of piracy; and upon conviction thereof, before any court having cognizance of the same, shall suffer death, without the benefit of clergy.
Sec. 2. … That if any person or persons shall introduce into the republic of Texas, any Africans or any slave or slaves, from the United States of America, except such slave or slaves as were previously introduced and held in slavery in that republic, in conformity with the laws of that government, shall be deemed guilty of piracy, and upon conviction therefore, before any court having cognizance of the same, shall suffer death.” [Dec. 21, 1836.]
Militia, Republic of Texas: “every able-bodied male citizen of this republic, resident therein, who is or shall be of the age of seventeen years, and under the age of fifty years, (except as hereinafter excepted,) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, by the captain or commanding officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizens shall reside….
Republic of Texas Session Laws [does not include Ninth Congress]: https://texashistory.unt.edu/explore/collections/RTXSL/
Texas History Collection: https://texashistory.unt.edu/explore/collections/THC/
postal service, “no other than a free white European, Anglo-American or Mexican”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45353/m1/61/?q=European
Convention Resolution: “all free white males and Mexicans opposed to a Central Government”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45353/m1/77/?q=white
marriage, “any person of European blood or their descendants,” “Africans, or the descendants of Africans”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45356/m1/234/?q=European
militia, “every free white able-bodied male inhabitant, over sixteen and under fifty years of age”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45353/m1/28/?q=white
“Mexican trader”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45348/m1/50/?q=Mexican
“free white male inhabitant, who shall have attained the age of twenty-one years” [Galveston]: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45348/m1/88/?q=white
“one dollar for every free white passenger”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45348/m1/92/?q=white
Crimes and misdeameanors committed by slaves and free persons of color / “free white female,” “free white person,” etc.: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45355/m1/43/?q=white https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth45355/m1/44/?q=white
Treaty between “the white and red men of Texas” (“Comanche, Keechie, Waco, Caddo, Ana-da-kah, Ionie, Delaware, Shawnee, Cherokee, Lipan [Apache], and Tah-wah-karro tribes of Indians”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth91047/m1/145/?q=white
“Poll Tax … on every white male of this Republic, between twenty-one and fifty years of age”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth91047/m1/95/?q=white
“to prevent the assembling of colored persons”: https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth91047/m1/75/?q=colored
Race consciousness/race logic
closely tied to slavery, black/white polarity
====> shifts over time ====>
segregation logic, more expansive outgroup, includes free/semifree laborers
Analysis of genomic diversity in Mexican Mestizo populations to develop genomic medicine in Mexico
Mexico is developing the basis for genomic medicine to improve healthcare of its population. The extensive study of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium structure of different populations has made it possible to develop tagging and imputation strategies to comprehensively analyze common genetic variation in association studies of complex diseases. We assessed the benefit of a Mexican haplotype map to improve identification of genes related to common diseases in the Mexican population. We evaluated genetic diversity, linkage disequilibrium patterns, and extent of haplotype sharing using genomewide data from Mexican Mestizos from regions with different histories of admixture and particular population dynamics. Ancestry was evaluated by including 1 Mexican Amerindian group and data from the HapMap. Our results provide evidence of genetic differences between Mexican subpopulations that should be considered in the design and analysis of association studies of complex diseases. In addition, these results support the notion that a haplotype map of the Mexican Mestizo population can reduce the number of tag SNPs required to characterize common genetic variation in this population. This is one of the first genomewide genotyping efforts of a recently admixed population in Latin America.
Admixture and population structure in Mexican-Mestizos based on paternal lineages
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In the nonrecombining region of the Y-chromosome, there are single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) that establish haplogroups with particular geographical origins (European, African, Native American, etc.). The complex process of admixture that gave rise to the majority of the current Mexican population (~93%), known as Mestizos, can be examined with Y-SNPs to establish their paternal ancestry and population structure. We analyzed 18 Y-SNPs in 659 individuals from 10 Mexican-Mestizo populations from different regions of the country. In the total population sample, paternal ancestry was predominately European (64.9%), followed by Native American (30.8%) and African (4.2%). However, the European ancestry was prevalent in the north and west (66.7–95%) and, conversely, Native American ancestry increased in the center and southeast (37–50%), whereas the African ancestry was low and relatively homogeneous (0–8.8%). Although this paternal landscape concurs with previous studies based on genome-wide SNPs and autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), this pattern contrasts with the maternal ancestry, mainly of Native American origin, based on maternal lineages haplogroups. In agreement with historical records, these results confirm a strong gender-biased admixture history between European males and Native American females that gave rise to Mexican-Mestizos. Finally, pairwise comparisons and analysis of molecular variance tests demonstrated significant population structure (FST=4.68%; P<0.00005), delimiting clusters that were geographically defined as the following: north–west, center–south and southeast.
Comes with this image of the data: